National Adult Literacy Agency.(2014). English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Blended Learning Project Report.
The report describes the findings from a research project carried out in Ireland in 2013 over a ten-week period with 41 learners. Learners in the ESOL program used a web site www.writeon.ie in conjunction with face to face classes. The study documents how they used this blended approach. The report provides a description of the two learning methods, a profile of the learners involved, and highlights the benefits to the various stakeholders of a blended approach for adult ESOL learners. The Write On site is open and accessible to users.
NALA acknowledges that there is not one agreed-upon definition of blended learning and sets out the one they have adopted: “Blended learning is about facilitating learning using a variety of approaches, best determined by the needs of the learner and the capability of the provider. It may or may not involve computers. It is simply a way of creatively matching different approaches to learners, content and contexts.”
Retrievable from: https://www.nala.ie/resources/english-speakers-other-languages-esol-blended-learning-project-report
Bow Valley College. (2015). Digital Literacy: An Essential Skill for ESL literacy Learners.
A short and lively account of an innovative “Laptop Lending” program in the Bridge Program for ESL learners (ages 19-24) at Bow Valley College in Calgary. Through this program learners are each given a laptop to use while registered in the program and are encouraged and supported to use the laptops to develop digital literacy skills and to pursue their language learning using the online platform, Desire2Learn.
Instructors in the Bridge program are committed to helping learners to develop essential digital literacy skills to increase their chances of success in further education and in the world of work. As one of the instructors says, “Being able to read and write also means being able to read and write online, there’s a lot more involved in it than just simply pen and paper.”
In this article the instructors provide an overview of the background to the laptop lending program, their experiences with the program and they share some of the successes they have witnessed as a result of the program.
Retrievable from: https://centre.bowvalleycollege.ca/blog/english-language-learning/digital-literacy-essential-skill-esl-literacy-learners
Fahy, P., & Sturm, M. (2012). Learning English with Modern Technology Student Survey Results. New Media Language Training.
Results of an online survey of 176 language students (98.8% enrolled in LINC classes and 1.2% enrolled in ESL classes) in Ontario, and a related questionnaire by teachers in the surveyed programs conducted as part of the evaluation of the LearnIT2Teach project. The majority reported that they use portable digital devices, e.g., laptops and mobile phones. Most use these devices in the home, in the language lab and in local libraries. The major uses are email (90%) and staying connected with friends and family. Respondents thought that technology is helpful for learning English. Ninety-three percent of the students thought that newcomers should use technology to learn English; over half of the students surveyed reported a preference for a blended learning approach which they described as online learning with the support of a teacher. Barriers to technology use for English language learning, identified by the respondents, include lack of connectivity, poor English skills or lack of computer skills. The authors conclude that these results point to the need to ensure that students are comfortable in an online environment, and can profit from a blended learning approach. They recommend that programs leverage existing technology, integrate social elements since the majority of students use technology to stay connected and that funders and programs collaborate to remove accessibility and connectivity barriers.
Retrievable from: http://learnit2teach.ca/wpnew/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/LearningEnglishWithModernTechnology-19Aug2012.pdf
Allan, J. (2013). New LearnIT2Teach Learner Support Features for Blended Learning. Contact Magazine, November 2013(26-30).
This 2013 article provides an update on resources available to federally funded LINC (Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada) adult settlement language programs in Ontario and a number of other Canadian provinces from the LearnIT2teach Project which began in 2010. It outlines new help that is available to learners in blended courses and what is available to instructors and administrators. It also describes just-in-time help for learners. An appendix in the article provides definitions for terms and thumbnail descriptions of key resources.
Retrievable from: http://www.teslontario.net/uploads/publications/contact/ContactFall2013.pdf
Stracke, E. (2007b). A road to understanding: A qualitative study into why learners drop out of a blended language learning (BLL) environment. ReCALL, 19(01), 57–78.
The paper reports on the reasons that a small, highly motivated group of students disliked a blended learning class enough to drop out within a few weeks and explores what is needed to avoid this happening. Although this paper reports on only three students, the reasons they dropped out are discussed elsewhere in this bibliography and can be seen to reveal fundamental issues that programs need to be aware of when implementing blended language learning initiatives. The reasons identified by the students for dropping out of the class included lack of support, e.g., guidance, sequencing, review by a teacher; prior beliefs about learning, e.g., the need for printed materials, and learning styles out of synch with the teaching style of the course; lack of connection or integration between the selfstudy portion and the classroom; difficulty and dislike working with the computer for one participant who didn’t realize ahead of time that the course was blended and an inability to relate to the computer as a medium for language learning. Stracke concludes by suggesting that more research is needed to understand why individual students like or dislike such a course and how to ensure that all students receive the support they need to succeed in similar language learning environments.
Available for purchase (USD $30.00 at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=691524
Do motivation tactics work in blended learning environments?: TheARCS model approach. Nehmet Akif Ocak and Murat Akçayir. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 2013 Vol. 3 Issue 4.
Philip Hubbard. (2013). Making a Case for Learner Training in Technology Enhanced Language Learning Environments. CALICO Journal, 30(2), 163–178.
The author focuses on the importance of learner training in technology-mediated language training. He presents four positions, (properly designed technology and tasks are transparent, learners have the ability to use technology optimally, digital natives don’t need training, specialized training for either teachers or learners is unnecessary), that would lead to avoiding learner training and then provides corresponding evidence that each of these positions is problematic and that learner training is essential. He presents a set of five learner training principles for teachers and developers that have had an impact on teachers as well as learners. The first principle is that as a teacher or developer, you should experience a computer-mediated course yourself. This is followed by a description of the result of teachers putting themselves in the role of language learner and the experience’s impact on them. He concludes that what really matters in technology-enhanced language learning is how learners use the technology and that teachers, researchers and developers should provide the guidance needed to use it well.
Kim, D., Rueckert, D, Kim, D.-J, & Seo, D. (2013). Students’ perceptions and experiences of mobile learning. Language Learning & Technology, 17(3), 52–73.
This study examined students’ perceptions and experiences in using mobile devices for language learning outside the classroom. The 53 students were enrolled in three graduate TESOL classes in a US university. A mobile learning site was created and students participated in pre- and post-surveys to gauge their perceptions before and after the project. In the course of the research students were required to participate in five class projects which involved the purposeful exploration of the use of their personal mobile devices for language learning. The study found that mobile technologies can support important new learning experiences. However, the researchers strongly recommend that instructors consider the technological demands of mobile devices, e.g., connectivity and data costs as well as the pedagogical components as they plan for the use of mobile technologies in the classroom.
Retrievable from: http://llt.msu.edu/issues/october2013/kimetal.pdf
Winke, P., & Goertler, S. (2008). Did We Forget Someone? Students’ Computer Access and Literacy for CALL. CALICO Journal, 25(3), 482–509.
The authors address the commonly held notion that because of their age, students coming into post-secondary language programs will be able to access computers readily, be computer literate, and have positive attitudes about learning with technology. They state that there is a shortage of research data to support this and that before programs are modified to incorporate technology, for example in a blended language program, learners should be surveyed to determine their access to the appropriate technology and to their interest in using it for language learning. Although some of the age-related assumptions are not relevant to adults in settlement language programs, issues of access to equipment, including hardware like headsets, microphones, web cams, and the Internet as well as the ability to carry out computer tasks, use software and a course management system are nonetheless extremely important. The study reports on findings from the responses of 911 university students’ in EFL classes. The technology survey questions are provided in the appendix and would be an important jumping off point for anyone considering implementing a blended learning settlement language program for adults.
Thieves. C (2011). Identifying the Real and Perceived Needs of ESL Adult Learners with Limited or No Literacy in their L1 (M.A.). McGill University.
This thesis is a study using a mixed methods research design (pre- and post-class questionnaire, interview and observation data) in a 12-week ESL class to determine the opinions of students in ESL programs in two schools in a large U.S. city in relation to their L1, English and computer literacy needs. Results showed that adults enrolled in the classes considered computer literacy skills as a fundamental tool for survival in a digital society. The author contends that these results can be used to guide ESL instructors in the modification of curricula and in the incorporation of digital technologies in ESL reading and writing instruction.
Retrievable From: http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/webclient/StreamGate?folder_id=0&dvs=1559177348184~497
Smith, K., & Craig, H. (2013). Enhancing the Autonomous Use of CALL – A new curriculum model in EFL. Calico Journal.l, 30(2), p-p 252-278.
This action research study evaluates the effectiveness of a CALL Learner Autonomy course in a blended EFL program at a Japanese university. The study looks at a number of reflective tools to help with learners’ motivational setbacks in a CALL environment due to a lack of computer skills or knowledge about how to use websites and software. These included tools to help learners with planning, organizing, tracking and evaluating their autonomous use of CALL resources. The researchers found that regular and critical learner self-reflection through using these tools was a key factor contributing to a positive shift in study culture. It is included in the bibliography as an example of practices that have been examined to improve learner autonomy.
Meckelborg, A. (2003). Assessing computer literacy in adult ESL learners (M. Ed). University of Alberta.
This thesis documents a relatively early study of instruments to measure computer literacy in a group of adult ESL students. Although there have been many developments in digital technologies over the past ten years and the range and type of skills described in this study are somewhat outdated, the discussion of the design and analysis of the assessment instruments remains of value in relation to assessment in a blended learning context. The assessment instruments piloted and studied as an alternative to a performance measure of computer skills were as follows: a computer experience questionnaire; a vocabulary self-assessment questionnaire; a computer skills self-assessment questionnaire and a written test of knowledge.
Ascenuik, C. (2012). Exploration of Newcomers’ Access to Internet Literacy (M.A). University of Ottawa.
This thesis examines the impact of levels of access to technology, both within and outside the program, on a small group of newcomers to Canada enrolled in a federally funded Enhanced Language Training (ELT) program. The study explores this impact in relation to the general internet literacy of the participants and the educational, curricular and pedagogical implications for the ELT program.
Retrievable From: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/OOU/TC-OOU-20498.pdf