Power within blended language learning programs in Japan.

Gruba, P., & Hinkelman, D. (2010). Power within blended language learning programs in Japan. Language Learning & Technology, 16(2), 46–64.

This study focuses on EFL programs in two Japanese universities and examines and interprets issues that influenced their blended language learning environments: facility design (online vs. face-to-face), human resources and materials authoring (publisher-based vs teacher-based authorship) and software designs (proprietary ownership vs distributed teacher initiatives). Implications of the study suggest the concept of technology in blended environments needs to be expanded from a focus on integrating electronic tools to configuring classrooms. Second, blended learning is not only a descriptive category of technology use in education, but also an interventionist strategy of iterative change in integrating face-to-face techniques with computer-based techniques. This study reports on important questions for adult settlement language training programs, including facilities, educational resources, instructor time, and attitudes towards technology.

Retrievable from: http://llt.msu.edu/issues/june2012/hinkelmangruba.pdf

Implementing E-Learning components with adult English language learners: Vital factors and lessons learned.

Coryell, J., & Chlup, D.T. (2007). Implementing E-Learning components with adult English language learners: Vital factors and lessons learned. Computer-assisted Language Learning, 20(3), 263 – 278.

This study explores how instructors and program directors in ESL or ESOL programs determine the right approach to choose blended elearning components for their programs and learners. The surveys and focus groups took place in 11 American states with 15 instructors and four program directors. The findings are grouped under four themes that encompass preparation, readiness, support for students and instructors, technology and funding.

Retrievable from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09588220701489333


Innovations in learning technologies for English language teaching.

Motteram, G. (Ed.). (2013). Innovations in learning technologies for English language teaching. The British Council.

Each chapter in this British Council publication includes case studies and a list of references. The educational settings include the primary and secondary sectors, and a number of settings for adult teaching. The editor includes both general language teaching and second language and ESL. Chapter 3: Technology and adult language teaching includes an ESOL case study in the UK, where there is substantial pressure and support to use technology and a blended approach in the program. Chapter 4: Technology integrated English for Specific Purposes lessons looks at real-life language, tasks and tools for professionals. This chapter describes the importance of context in choosing the right tools. It also includes information about mobile learning. Chapter 6 looks at technology enhanced assessment for English language teaching, including language portfolios, e-portfolios and open source tools. The editor concludes by discussing how technologies allow teachers to address more than immediate language needs and to engage students in ways that would have been difficult in the past. He also maintains the centrality of teachers in the classroom.

Retrievable from: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/C607%20Information%20and%20Communication_WEB%20ONLY_FINAL.pdf

Realizing the Full Potential of Blended Learning.

Realizing the Full Potential of Blended Learning. (2012). Center for Digital Education.

This brief strategy paper from the Center for Digital Education, a US research and advisory institute focused on K-12 and higher education technology trends and policies reports on a survey of blended learning initiatives and trends in the higher education sector. Although the paper does not address blended learning in the language learning sector it does provide a useful overview of the rapidly developing trend towards blended learning, the implications of that trend, the potential benefits of blended learning, particularly in relation to increased student engagement, and the ongoing need to further clarify the concept of blended learning and its concomitant parts so that instructors can better understand its potential.

Retrievable from: http://echo360.com/sites/default/files/CDE12%20STRATEGY%20Echo360-V.pdf

Problematizing the Hybrid Classroom for ESL/EFL Students.

Harrington, A.M. (2010). Problematizing the Hybrid Classroom for ESL/EFL Students. TESL-EJ, 14(3).

Hybrid courses — which replace 20%–80% of class meetings with online activities — are predicted to increase as educators embrace the benefits of blending online technologies with face-to-face class meetings. Also expected to increase are enrollments of ESL/EFL students. As these growth trends intersect, an increased number of ESL/EFL students are expected to enroll in hybrid courses, especially mainstream courses populated by a majority of native-English-speaking students. Despite these growth trends and research showing hybrid courses as positive for most students, the TESOL community has not yet opened a discussion of the implications of hybrid delivery of mainstream classes for ESL/ EFL students. In an effort to start the discussion, this article investigates potential problems related to issues of identity, forced individualization, and muting; gives several strategies for instructors of hybrid courses with ESL/EFL students; and concludes by calling for TESOL researchers to focus attention on hybrid delivery.

Retrievable from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ912069.pdf

Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and Implementation.

Tomlinson, B. & Whittaker C. (Eds.). (2013). Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and Implementation. British Council.

This British Council publication includes 20 case studies illustrating a broad range of English language program designs in widespread geographic and educational settings: K-12, university, college, foreign language programs, ESP, EAP and business English. Although most of the case studies are outside the realm of settlement language training, chapter 20 addresses some very relevant issues, e.g., pay issues with part time instructors, cost of developing materials, etc. Each part of the book is followed with references and comments by the editor. In the conclusion, the co-editor addresses the need for help for designers and practitioners to answer the question of which blend provides the best basis for language learning and teaching in a specific situation.

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How to Make the Most of Blended Learning.

Contact North. (2014). How to Make the Most of Blended Learning.

This is a concise review of the benefits and challenges of using blended learning in the community college sector in Ontario. Benefits identified include increased flexibility, enhanced student engagement and relative cost savings. Challenges include learner and instructor preparedness, and the need for careful instructional design. The document also provides links to information about how blended learning is being used in several community colleges in the province. Although the information is intended for the postsecondary sector, the discussion of the benefits and challenges of blended learning is particularly relevant to the settlement language community.

Retrievable from: http://teachonline.ca/tools-trends/blended-learning-successful-design-delivery-and-student-engagement/how-make-most-blended-learning

Second-Language Acquisition and the information Age: How Social Software has Created a New Mode of Learning.

Davies, R. J. (2011). Second-Language Acquisition and the Information Age: How Social Software has Created a New Mode of Learning. TESL Canada Journal/Revue TESL du Canada 28(2), 11–19.

The author argues that the use of social software can – rather than as some fear, lead to isolation for students – enhance and build on traditional forms of social learning which, he posits is an integral element in the learning process. Social networking sites, wikis, blogs and podcasts, he argues, provide many benefits to students allowing them a much wider range for communications with peers, to shape content collaboratively and to develop learning autonomy. He further argues that instructors can use these technologies to collaboratively build curricula, share lesson plans and support collaboration and cooperation – he also says that the proliferation and embedding of social networking in our lives will alter how teachers teach and how curricula are developed and organized. His recommendation is that the second language field should embrace these technologies and that the field will benefit by becoming part of what he describes as the “ever-changing educational landscape”.

Retrievable from: http://www.teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1069

Video-conferencing Research Community of Practice Research Report.

Alberta Education. (2006). Video-conferencing Research Community of Practice Research Report.

This report looks at the potential of video-conferencing technology and other technologies to enhance and improve education practice and systems. Alberta SuperNet makes videoconferencing a feasible option for K-12 schools in areas previously limited by bandwidth restrictions. It presents a number of case studies illustrating the use of videoconferencing in schools in Alberta, Canada. This report provides an example of how videoconferencing could be used to connect adult ESL learners in remote locations to others in more richly resourced urban settings.

Retrievable from: https://education.alberta.ca/media/3115440/vccopreport.pdf

Developing an ESL Literacy Blended online Course for LINC Learners.

Lupasco, S. (n.d.). Developing an ESL Literacy Blended Online Course for LINC Learners. Contact Magazine, November 2013, 31–35.

In this article Lupasco describes an assignment for Post TESL accreditation for which she develops e-Materials for Language Training. As she walks the reader through the different sections of the blended ESL Literacy course that she created, there are echoes of the theory and examined practice that appear in other resources included in this bibliography.

Retrievable from: http://www.teslontario.net/uploads/publications/contact/ContactFall2013.pdf

Teacher and student perspectives on a blended learning intensive English program writing course

Larsen, L. (2012). Teacher and student perspectives on a blended learning intensive English program writing course (Ph.D.). Iowa State University.

Although this dissertation investigates the use of blended learning with ESL writing students in an intensive English program, there is much that will be of interest to adult settlement language programs as well. The author notes the immaturity of blended learning within the area of language learning and also that blended learning is considered separate from CALL. One of the author’s points is that CALL research does not mention blended learning theories, but blended learning researchers often rely on CALL research when making arguments. The author provides a table (Table 2, p 38) showing blended learning studies and the variables identified or investigated in blended learning environments. These include areas of interest to adult settlement language programs such as student computer literacy skills; teacher attitude, training and support and positive effects on learner autonomy. The writer stresses “the paucity” of research in blended learning implementation in language learning environments. He also states that a review of the literature from CALL indicates that teachers are generally not sufficiently prepared to teach using technology which may also be significant in adult settlement language training.

Retrievable from: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3382&context=etd

Web 2.0 and Four Paths Beyond

Hubbard, P., P. (2011, March 18). Web 2.0 and Four Paths Beyond. PowerPoint Slides presented at the TESOL Conference, New Orleans.

A presentation about Web 2.0, emerging technologies and the critical importance of incorporating technology and learning with technology deeply in language teacher training in order to support teacher flexibility, to prepare teachers for long careers in language teaching during which they are likely to continually encounter new technologies, new technological modes, and in which they will need to have the confidence and skills to approach these technologies successfully. The presentation also highlights the importance of situated learning theory in ensuring that teachers learn in the same environment in which they will teach.

Retrievable from: http://web.stanford.edu/~efs/tesol-11.pdf

Language Learning and Technology Special issue on Teacher Education and CALL

Language learning & Technology Special issue on Teacher Education and CALL

Volume 19 Number 1 February 2015

This is a special issue of the online journal that addresses the topic of teacher education and computer assisted language learning.

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Language Learning & Technology: 20th Anniversary Special Issue

Volume 20 Number 2 (June 2016)

This special anniversary issue of the Journal used a crowdsourcing and survey approach to determine the content of this special issue. there are four review articles, including one that provides examples of how Second language acquisition and CALL have been explored during the last 20 years. Seven commentaries appear from scholars whose articles received the most citations over the life of the journal.


The Bewildering Language of Online Learning

The Bewildering Language of Online Learning? (2016, March 10).

This short article provides a timely and clear attempt at an explanation and definition of a range of terms and concepts in common use in the area of online and flexible teaching and learning. It offers a very handy and accessible guide to the key terms or jargon in this field and also offers links to real-world examples of terms such as “flipped classroom” and “gamification”.

Retrievable from:  http://teachonline.ca/tools-trends/how-use-technology-effectively/bewildering-language-online-learning

Designing evaluation into change management processes. In Managing Change in English Language Teaching: Lessons from Experience.

Kiely, R. (2012). Designing evaluation into change management processes. In Managing Change in English Language Teaching: Lessons from Experience. Edited by Christopher Tribble. London: British Council.

This chapter is part of a British Council book about the changing role of English in the world. It provides details from 21 international English Language Training projects. The book addresses issues surrounding the internationalization of English. Although it does not address settlement issues, its inclusion of a blended learning project does make it meaningful for the bibliography. In many language programs innovative projects today do involve the integration of technology. The introductory notes to the book state the importance of a number of elements that should be addressed “in parallel” when making changes in education in order that the changes make a lasting impact. The examples given include initial as well as in-service training of teachers and testing and assessment systems, curriculum and course materials. These needs are also present in adult settlement language training programs that are intending to integrate technology and adopt a blended approach. Kiely’s chapter ends with a description of three types of evaluation that he hopes will engage the different agendas of program stakeholders in improving the likelihood of success in all areas of a program.

Retrievable from: https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/B330%20MC%20in%20ELT%20book_v7.pdf


Evaluating the Impact of Blended Learning on Performance and Engagement of Second Language Learners.

Rebecca Y Jee, Gabriele O’Connor. (2014). Evaluating the Impact of Blended Learning on Performance and Engagement of Second Language Learners. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC), 7(3), 12–16.

This article is based on a small-scale research study using Voxy a commercial Web and mobile platform within a Task-Based Language Teaching framework. The Voxy platform, designed for the self-study learner, provides authentic, personalized content and includes one-one-one video tutoring sessions online group classes
The study is focused on the following research questions
To what extent does blended learning impact the performance of language learners?
To what extent does blended learning impact the engagement of language learners?
The study, albeit limited in scope, indicates that language learners who access synchronous language instruction along with self-study demonstrate greater increases in proficiency than those who engage only in self-study.

Retrievable from: http://online-journals.org/index.php/i-jac/article/view/3986

(Articles in the International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC) are available at no cost , users need to register for a free account)

Issues emerging from the pilot of an online module on vocabulary learning by low-educated adult immigrants.

Martha Young-Scholten,. (2015). Issues emerging from the pilot of an online module on vocabulary learning by low-educated adult immigrants. Language Issues: The ESOL Journal, 26(2), 41–45.

A report of an international pilot of online learning module for second-language instructors in North America and the European Union, conducted over a 5-week period in 2015. The instructors are working with learners who have been designated as low-educated and literacy acquisition (LESLLA). Based on two extensive surveys of the professional development and training needs of these instructors the online training module focused on vocabulary teaching and learning. The module, Topics in Vocabulary Learning for LESLLA Learners, (in English, Dutch German, Finnish and Spanish). was delivered using MOODLE. Learning materials were drawn from publications in each of these languages as well as translations of some English materials into the other languages. The author states that while more research is required to better understand how LESLLA learner develop vocabulary and move from fast-mapping to the use of new vocabulary in their daily lives, the value of this pilot is in support instructors in carrying out their own research to extend understanding of vocabulary acquisition this pilot. In addition, participants in the pilot, although it was of short duration, reported positive results based on their learning and experimenting with new techniques. The pilot also set the groundwork for the future development of a curriculum framework for LESLLA instructors, at the international level, which will allow instructors to share and exchange their experience and knowledge.

Cost: $USD 38.16

Retrievable from:



Evaluation of a blended language learning environment in a French university and its effects on second language acquisition.

Marie-Françoise Narcy-Combes, J. McAllister.   Evaluation of a blended language learning environment in a French university and its effects on second language acquisition. La revue du GERAS  2011, 59, 115–138.

In response to a high drop-out rate in large compulsory language classes in a French university, a blended learning program was introduced, using a task-based approach with a distance component using Moodle and face-to-face small group tutorials. The goal was to raise motivation using real-life tasks and to develop interactions that promote second language acquisition. The face-to-face component was further broken into two tutorials, one with 45 students and a teacher and one with 15 students. Teachers provided personalized feedback both in the tutorials and online. The report presents results about the students’ language levels, their involvement, their language learning in class, and their perceptions of the blended language learning program. The author presents key themes expressed by the students related to strengths and weaknesses in the program. Several students commented that a teacher is essential. Team work remained a challenge for students and the authors state that they are searching for a way to convince students that they have more teacher access in a blended learning environment than they would in larger groups.

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