Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) into a Non-formal Learning Environment to Support Migrant Women Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition.

Ahmad, Kham Sila (2019) Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) into a Non-formal Learning Environment to Support Migrant Women Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition. PhD thesis, Murdoch University

This Ph. D Thesis describes a small-scale research project to explore the effect of Mobile -Assisted Language Learning) MALL on migrant women’s vocabulary acquisition in an Australian context. Using a case study approach, using semi-structured interviews and observation a group of migrant women attending a conversational English class were divided into 3 groups. The first group attended a regular class in which no MALL was used, the second group consisted of students who had attended the regular class and then attended a MALL -integrated or hybrid class in which they used a tablet computer and a language App. The third group attended a wholly Mall integrated class. The hybrid model was found to be the most effective, providing students with enhanced exposure and opportunities to use English and more intensive vocabulary practice and repetition using the exercises and learning activities in the language App. Based on the findings of the research a MALL-enhanced framework for vocabulary acquisition for migrant women in a non-formal learning environment was developed. This framework could be a very useful starting point for instructors and researchers to investigate the use of a MALL-integrated process for settlement language learning in a Canadian context.

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Migrants and Mobile Technology Use: Gaps in the Support Provided by Current Tools

Demmans Epp, C., (2017). Migrants and Mobile Technology Use: Gaps in the Support Provided by Current Tools. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2017(1), 2.

This article describes the findings of  a small-scale research project to examine how recent migrants to Canada make use of mobile technologies to support their English language learning.

The study indicates that recent migrants can and do make use of mobile technologies to access information, but that there is a need for more extensive supports to enable them to make better use of these technologies to support language language learning, including comprehension, production and language acquisition.

The researcher concludes that there is a need for, and an opportunity to create, more mobile technology tools and applications to help scaffold the development of new skills.There is also a need for mobile tools that could help language learners to better understand and communicate across a variety of forms of English and tools that would allow them to practice their communication skills, receive feedback which would, in turn, enable them to plan for future learning.

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ESOL and EFL: An unhelpful distinction?

Williams, E., & Williams, A. (2007). ESOL and EFL: An unhelpful distinction?

This review of the current state of ESOL in the UK and brief historical overview of the development of ESOL and EFL, outlines the distinctions between these two terms and points to the need for convergence and/or integration of ESOL and EFL to meet the current needs of students in the UK. The report also provides an outline of the authors’ understanding of ESOL provision in Canada, Australia and New Zealand, tracing the historical, policy-related and ideological strands in each country that led to the current model of provision.

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Teaching Workplace Cultural Communication (Online).

Nawaz, M. (2014). Teaching Workplace Cultural Communication (Online). Contact, 40(1), 24–28.

This article describes the Workplace Cultural Communications (Online) course offered by Immigrant Settlement and Integration Services (ISIS) to new and pre-arrival immigrants who are at Canadian Language Benchmarks 7/8. The course, on the Moodle platform, consists of 10 modules offered over a 10-week period. Each module focuses on a specific workplace cultural value and focuses on language, interchange and social norms in the Canadian workplace. Participants complete written and audio-recorded assignments in each module and also participate in a discussion forum where they can interact and share information about their current locations, professional background and workplace experiences.

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ATESL Adult ESL Curriculum Framework E-Learning.

Chambers, E., Grida, S., Ilott, W., Messaros, C., & Dawson, K. (2011). ATESL Adult ESL Curriculum Framework E-Learning. Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language.

The ATESL ESL Curriculum Framework, Section 8, focuses on E-learning. This section offers a comprehensive review of the essential elements for the successful integration of technology in ESL instruction. It includes an examination of the benefits of E-Learning and a discussion of the guiding principles for the design of effective learning activities and assessment strategies. The review also includes an overview of the importance of supporting the development of digital literacy for students to enable them to participate productively in E-Learning. Finally the review describes the role of instructor “e-practices” in relation to the successful integration of E-Learning and highlights the critical importance of professional development for instructors to enable them to take advantage of the full potential of E-Learning.

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Video-conferencing Research Community of Practice Research Report.

Alberta Education. (2006). Video-conferencing Research Community of Practice Research Report.

This report looks at the potential of video-conferencing technology and other technologies to enhance and improve education practice and systems. Alberta SuperNet makes videoconferencing a feasible option for K-12 schools in areas previously limited by bandwidth restrictions. It presents a number of case studies illustrating the use of videoconferencing in schools in Alberta, Canada. This report provides an example of how videoconferencing could be used to connect adult ESL learners in remote locations to others in more richly resourced urban settings.

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Developing an ESL Literacy Blended online Course for LINC Learners.

Lupasco, S. (n.d.). Developing an ESL Literacy Blended Online Course for LINC Learners. Contact Magazine, November 2013, 31–35.

In this article Lupasco describes an assignment for Post TESL accreditation for which she develops e-Materials for Language Training. As she walks the reader through the different sections of the blended ESL Literacy course that she created, there are echoes of the theory and examined practice that appear in other resources included in this bibliography.

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Web 2.0 and Four Paths Beyond

Hubbard, P., P. (2011, March 18). Web 2.0 and Four Paths Beyond. PowerPoint Slides presented at the TESOL Conference, New Orleans.

A presentation about Web 2.0, emerging technologies and the critical importance of incorporating technology and learning with technology deeply in language teacher training in order to support teacher flexibility, to prepare teachers for long careers in language teaching during which they are likely to continually encounter new technologies, new technological modes, and in which they will need to have the confidence and skills to approach these technologies successfully. The presentation also highlights the importance of situated learning theory in ensuring that teachers learn in the same environment in which they will teach.

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Language Learning and Technology Special issue on Teacher Education and CALL

Language learning & Technology Special issue on Teacher Education and CALL

Volume 19 Number 1 February 2015

This is a special issue of the online journal that addresses the topic of teacher education and computer assisted language learning.

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Language Learning & Technology: 20th Anniversary Special Issue

Volume 20 Number 2 (June 2016)

This special anniversary issue of the Journal used a crowdsourcing and survey approach to determine the content of this special issue. there are four review articles, including one that provides examples of how Second language acquisition and CALL have been explored during the last 20 years. Seven commentaries appear from scholars whose articles received the most citations over the life of the journal.

Evaluating the Impact of Blended Learning on Performance and Engagement of Second Language Learners.

Rebecca Y Jee, Gabriele O’Connor. (2014). Evaluating the Impact of Blended Learning on Performance and Engagement of Second Language Learners. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC), 7(3), 12–16.

This article is based on a small-scale research study using Voxy a commercial Web and mobile platform within a Task-Based Language Teaching framework. The Voxy platform, designed for the self-study learner, provides authentic, personalized content and includes one-one-one video tutoring sessions online group classes
The study is focused on the following research questions
To what extent does blended learning impact the performance of language learners?
To what extent does blended learning impact the engagement of language learners?
The study, albeit limited in scope, indicates that language learners who access synchronous language instruction along with self-study demonstrate greater increases in proficiency than those who engage only in self-study.

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(Articles in the International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC) are available at no cost , users need to register for a free account)

A Typology of Tasks for Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Recommendations from a Small-Scale Needs Analysis.

Moonyoung Park, & Tammy Slater. (2014). A Typology of Tasks for Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Recommendations from a Small-Scale Needs Analysis. TESL Canada Journal, 31(Special Issue 8).

This study explored how college-level ESL students are currently using their mobile devices for language learning and the attitudes and opinions of their instructors in relation to Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL). The study included semi-structured interviews with students and instructors, an online survey and a task-based needs analysis focused on what learners and instructors want and need in relation to mobile-assisted language learning. Based on this research a set of language tasks in the areas of listening, speaking, reading and writing were identified. The researchers created a MALL-based task typology to support the future development of pedagogic tasks for academic ESL courses and to support the development of MALL-based curricula and lesson plans. The study found that while ESL learners are using mobile devices for a variety of learning and personal purposes, including communications and as reference tools, instructors need ongoing professional development to support them in realizing the potential of mobile devices in language teaching and to effectively incorporate mobile device use in task development for academic ESL courses.

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Issues emerging from the pilot of an online module on vocabulary learning by low-educated adult immigrants.

Martha Young-Scholten,. (2015). Issues emerging from the pilot of an online module on vocabulary learning by low-educated adult immigrants. Language Issues: The ESOL Journal, 26(2), 41–45.

A report of an international pilot of online learning module for second-language instructors in North America and the European Union, conducted over a 5-week period in 2015. The instructors are working with learners who have been designated as low-educated and literacy acquisition (LESLLA). Based on two extensive surveys of the professional development and training needs of these instructors the online training module focused on vocabulary teaching and learning. The module, Topics in Vocabulary Learning for LESLLA Learners, (in English, Dutch German, Finnish and Spanish). was delivered using MOODLE. Learning materials were drawn from publications in each of these languages as well as translations of some English materials into the other languages. The author states that while more research is required to better understand how LESLLA learner develop vocabulary and move from fast-mapping to the use of new vocabulary in their daily lives, the value of this pilot is in support instructors in carrying out their own research to extend understanding of vocabulary acquisition this pilot. In addition, participants in the pilot, although it was of short duration, reported positive results based on their learning and experimenting with new techniques. The pilot also set the groundwork for the future development of a curriculum framework for LESLLA instructors, at the international level, which will allow instructors to share and exchange their experience and knowledge.

Cost: $USD 38.16

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Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and New Media on Language Learning.

Stevens, A., & Shield, L. (2009). Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and New Media on Language Learning (No. EACEA 2007/09). European Commission. Education and Culture Executive Agency.

A study of the impact of ICT and new media on language learning conducted by the European Commission in 2008/09. The study comprised a comparative study of the potential of ICT and new media in language learning; a quantitative study of their use; a qualitative survey of current trends and a set of case studies illustrating good practice in the use of ICT and new media for language learning.

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Blending technologies in ESL courses: A reflexive enquiry.

Gruba, P., Cameron, C., Ng, K. & Wells, M. (2009). Blending technologies in ESL courses: A reflexive enquiry. Presented at the ascilite Conference, Auckland, NZ.

In this presentation from the 2009 ascilite Conference in Auckland NZ, a group of researchers describe their learning as a self-directed “community of innovation” after creating a series of podcasts as a springboard for an action research study to look at issues related to integrating technology in variety of types of ESL classes. The study highlights some of the barriers to integration that have been identified elsewhere:  time, need for professional development and IT support.

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CALL—Past, Present and Future.

Bax, S. (2003). CALL—Past, Present and Future. System, 31, 13–28.

This widely-cited article looks at different ways of recording the history of Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), but at the same time explores an ultimate goal for the place of technology in language classrooms. Bax begins by asking where CALL has been, where it is in 2003 and where it is going. In the section of the article about the future of CALL, the author argues that if language programs are to benefit fully from the potential which computers and computer technologies offer, there needs to be a move towards what he calls “normalisation”, which is the situation when these technologies are used daily and as naturally as other resources in the classroom – they are integrated into learning and they are secondary to learning itself. Instructors and managers will be interested in the list of different stages on the road to normalisation. These have been identified in diffusion of innovations research. Many of the suggestions about what is needed to achieve normalisation, e.g., better software, more action research and especially the size, shape and position of the classroom computer are still relevant today.

Cost: USD $19.95

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Identifying the Real and Perceived Needs of ESL Adult Learners with Limited or No Literacy in their L1

Thieves. C (2011). Identifying the Real and Perceived Needs of ESL Adult Learners with Limited or No Literacy in their L1 (M.A.). McGill University.

This thesis is a study using a mixed methods research design (pre- and post-class questionnaire, interview and observation data) in a 12-week ESL class to determine the opinions of students in ESL programs in two schools in a large U.S. city in relation to their L1, English and computer literacy needs. Results showed that adults enrolled in the classes considered computer literacy skills as a fundamental tool for survival in a digital society.  The author contends that these results can be used to guide ESL instructors in the modification of curricula and in the incorporation of digital technologies in ESL reading and writing instruction.

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Assessing computer literacy in adult ESL learners

Meckelborg, A. (2003). Assessing computer literacy in adult ESL learners (M. Ed). University of Alberta.

This thesis documents a relatively early study of instruments to measure computer literacy in a group of adult ESL students. Although there have been many developments in digital technologies over the past ten years and the range and type of skills described in this study are somewhat outdated, the discussion of the design and analysis of the assessment instruments remains of value in relation to assessment in a blended learning context. The assessment instruments piloted and studied as an alternative to a performance measure of computer skills were as follows: a computer experience questionnaire; a vocabulary self-assessment questionnaire; a computer skills self-assessment questionnaire and a written test of knowledge.

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LINC and CLIC: Looking Back, Looking Forward

Singh, D., & Blakely, G. (2012). LINC and CLIC: Looking Back, Looking Forward. INSCAN Special Issue on Settlement Language Training, (Spring), 7–11.

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This article provides a very useful overview of the history and development of language training in Canada since the inception of federally funded Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) and Cours de langue pour les immigrants au Canada (CLIC) in 1992. The article also addresses the increasingly important role of learning technologies in language training and the opportunities for extending the reach of programming through the use of online and blended learning to maximize the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of language training across the country.