Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) into a Non-formal Learning Environment to Support Migrant Women Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition.

Ahmad, Kham Sila (2019) Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) into a Non-formal Learning Environment to Support Migrant Women Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition. PhD thesis, Murdoch University

This Ph. D Thesis describes a small-scale research project to explore the effect of Mobile -Assisted Language Learning) MALL on migrant women’s vocabulary acquisition in an Australian context. Using a case study approach, using semi-structured interviews and observation a group of migrant women attending a conversational English class were divided into 3 groups. The first group attended a regular class in which no MALL was used, the second group consisted of students who had attended the regular class and then attended a MALL -integrated or hybrid class in which they used a tablet computer and a language App. The third group attended a wholly Mall integrated class. The hybrid model was found to be the most effective, providing students with enhanced exposure and opportunities to use English and more intensive vocabulary practice and repetition using the exercises and learning activities in the language App. Based on the findings of the research a MALL-enhanced framework for vocabulary acquisition for migrant women in a non-formal learning environment was developed. This framework could be a very useful starting point for instructors and researchers to investigate the use of a MALL-integrated process for settlement language learning in a Canadian context.

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Task-based language teaching online: A guide for teachers

Baralt, M., & Morcillo Gómez, J. (2017). Task-based language teaching online: A guide for teachers. Language Learning & Technology, 21(3), 28–43.

This article provides a guide for teachers who do task based teaching using real time video, recognizing that online language courses should not simply be face-to-face courses moved online. It discusses how the authors have adapted Willis’ (1996, 2012) task-based methodology framework to address modifications needed for an online context. The authors review the criteria for language-teaching activities to be considered tasks and also how to implement them successfully. They provide a teacher’s plan to illustrate the framework to implement a task along with video examples. The authors conclude by considering aspects of online teaching that are unique, e.g., potential problems with connectivity and how to foster an online community.  They also emphasize the value of online classes in providing language learning opportunities regardless of geographic location and its contribution to developing digital literacy skills.


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Significant Predictors for Effectiveness of Blended Learning In a Language Course

Wichadee, S. (2018) Significant predictors for effectiveness of blended learning in a language course. JALT Call Journal, Vol. 14, (1) 24-42.

Although this research study of 149 (90 female, 59 male) participants took place in an undergraduate university language course, the results are meaningful for adult learners who are in settlement language programs and for those who design blended programs for them as well. After highlighting the characteristics, rationale for and benefits of blended learning, the author goes on to explore satisfaction with the course being studied and participants’ learning performance.

The author identifies digital literacy, workload management, attitudes toward blended learning, online tool quality and face-to-face support to be among the factors identified in literature reviews as those that will have an impact on the effectiveness of blended learning.

The design of the course studied included a face-to-face orientation followed by alternating weeks of face-to-face classroom work and online self-study using online learning platforms. The knowledge gained in online weeks was checked in the face-to-face weeks.

One of the results of the study was that the more these students had positive attitudes towards blended learning, had digital literacy skills and received face-to-face support, the better their learning performance. In this study, workload management and quality of online tools did not affect learning scores. As far as satisfaction with the course, there were two factors that predicted satisfaction: face-to-face support and attitudes towards blended learning.

In the discussion at the end of the report the author provides additional background on how the course was modified for this study and details on students’ attitudes as he reviews how and why face-to-face support and attitudes toward blended learning were predictors of student satisfaction.


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Technology, teachers, and training: Combining theory with Macedonia’s experience

Hosman, L. Cvetanoska, M. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2013, Vol 9. Issue 3, pp.28-49.

This article looks at the importance of teachers as stakeholder-change agents in the adoption of innovation in schools. It offers recommendations for improvements to address teacher concerns in programs like the computers-in-the-schools program described in Macedonia. It presents and uses a theoretical framework for adoption of innovation that looks at the stages of concerns experienced by teachers about their teaching skills and abilities.

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Teacher Training and Professional Development in Mobile Pedagogy for English Language Teaching


Norris, L., & Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2017). Teacher training and professional development in mobile pedagogy for English language teaching. In R. Power,  M. Ally, D. Cristol, & A. Palalas (Eds.), IAmLearning: Mobilizing and supporting educator practice. [e-Book]. International Association for Mobile Learning.

The chapter describes the four pillars of the authors’ Pedagogical Framework and how they highlight the teacher’s role using mobile devices for language teaching and learning. The Framework considers teacher wisdom, device features, learner mobilities and language dynamics. The authors describe using the Framework in professional development workshops in Europe for teachers from several countries. They faced both resistance and enthusiasm from participants and they describe the anxiety teachers felt as they used technology in the workshops.

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Digital Literacies

Dudeney, Gavin, Nicky Hockly and Mark Pegrum. Digital Literacies. Harlow, England: Pearson, 2013.

This book is organized in four chapters:

  1. From research to implications – you’ll find a framework of digital literacies.
  2. From implications to application – you’ll find a digital activities grid, descriptions of activities and a number of worksheets. worksheets can slso be obtained online.
  3. From application to implementation – you’ll find information about how to integrate digital literacies in your teaching practice depending on your context and the syllabus you are working with.
  4. From implementation to research – you’ll find suggestions about how to continue your own learning about digital literacies as you work through challenges that arise. There is detailed description of building and maintaining a personal learning network (PLN).


Digital Literacies in Foreign and Second Language Education

CALICO Monograph Series Volume 12. (2014). Digital Literacies in Foreign and Second Language Education.

This volume from CALICO is made up of 12 chapters that look at digital literacy in language learning from many different perspectives. Among others, there is a challenge to Prensky’s characterization of Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants, a description of a survey-driven study of the use of digital tools for language teaching and learning, a framework that proposes how to close the digital divide, and an exploration of the affordances of digital social reading using the example of an open source tool called eComma. In this last example, in chapter 9, author Carl Blyth looks at some of the ways that e-readers can enable users to annotate a text and share their annotations with others. This new practice, called digital social reading, is similar to the way that readers of print text can write in the margins or meet as a book club to share their thoughts. Blyth presents and then addresses some of the opposition to this practice using examples from four case studies.

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Defining Essential Digital Skills in the Canadian Workplace

Chinien, Chris, and France Boutin. (2011). Defining Essential Digital Skills in the Canadian Workplace: Final Report. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.

This study reports on a proposed digital skill framework for Canadian workers. The proposed framework includes four skills clusters, three of which are foundational skills, technical digital skills and digital information processing skills. This report is of interest because it provides information about the types of skills adult learners who attend settlement language training will be expected to be able to demonstrate in the workplace. The report points out that prosperity from the digital economy will not depend only on specialists and advanced users of digital technology, but on general workers as well. This has resulted in an increased interest for all workers to possess essential digital skills for both technical systems skills and for everyday tasks so that they can work efficiently and effectively. At the time of the writing of the report, there was no consensus on a definition of digital literacy, as indicated in a chart of definitions of concepts, but attempts were being made to standardize, these while maintaining some adaptability to reflect emerging technologies, in the EU, Australia, New Zealand, the U.S and through UNESCO’s member states. The report provides short reviews of the digital literacy frameworks in each of these jurisdictions and goes on to propose such a framework for Canada.

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Keystone Concepts: Guiding Principles and Components of Program Planning

Toronto Catholic District School Board. Keystone Concepts: Guiding Principles and Components of Program Planning. (2015).

The Keystone Concepts document lays out the foundation of the Curriculum Guidelines for the Ontario Adult Non-Credit Language Training Program. The Curriculum Guidelines are delivered through Quartz, an interactive web-based planning application for language training programs. Quartz aims to assist French as a Second Language and English as a Second Language instructors in planning courses, lessons, units and assessments based on the Canadian Language Benchmarks. The Concepts document lays out the browse and build components of Quartz. Quartz requires an authorized log in to access. Key Concepts sets out a framework for program design and delivery by identifying and describing eight guiding principles and four key components. These guidelines are significant for the bibliography because they highlight the importance of a principled approach to program planning, rather than an ad hoc approach that might be used to add online activities to a program. All of the guiding principles set out here also apply to determining how to incorporate online and face to face activities to create a blended approach to instruction.

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The LearnIT2teach Administrator’s Manual: Integrating & Managing Blended learning.

The LearnIT2Teach Administrator’s Manual: Integrating & Managing Blended Learning, Moodle 2 Edition (2014).

The Administrator’s Manual was developed specifically for administrators in federally funded Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) programs. Because the manual contains a broad introduction to a variety of methods, social media and tools, a social constructivist approach and best practices for teaching and learning, it will be of interest to a wider audience as well. The manual also outlines the evaluation approaches that have been used during the LearnIT2Teach project. The manual introduces the LINC courseware that is available to LINC instructors and provides checklists and tools to help manage language labs as well as a bibliography, glossary, list of professional development sources and an ICT Health Check to assist administrators to diagnose their readiness for using technology in their centre. There is an inventory of videos on the project’s YouTube channel. The Administrator’s manual is an essential tool for LINC administrators whatever stage of readiness they are at in using technology as part of their program. This is the second edition of the manual and reflects changes that were implemented to the learner courseware and teacher training concurrent with the migration to Moodle Version 2.5.

Retrievable from: – A New Canada-wide Online Resource and Community of Practice.

Ko, N., & St-Jean, P. (2012). – A New Canada-wide Online Resource and Community of Practice. INSCAN Special Issue on Settlement Language Training.

This article describes, a pan-Canadian online repository and community for ESL and French as a Second Language (FSL) practitioners across the country. The repository holds a wide range of language training resources from Canada, including lesson plans, assessment materials, classroom materials, learning objects and audio and video resources. also functions as an online community of practice to share resources, and to access information about best practices. Users have access to discussion forums, special interest groups, information about job opportunities and resource recommendations and reviews. Within the context of this bibliography, provides an essential resource to support practitioners to learn and share information about blended learning models, experiences and resources.

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TESOL Technology Standards Framework.

TESOL Technology Standards. (2008). Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL).

This is the original TESOL Technology Standards Framework Document (2008) that was updated in 2011. When this edition was updated, the goals, standards and performance indicators weren’t changed, but the updated edition provides vignettes to put the material that you read in this older version into context. The 2011 edition also elaborates on research behind the standards and adds chapters for teacher trainers, administrators and online teachers.

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Guiding principles in online ESL programming.

Light, J. (n.d.). Guiding principles in online ESL programming. ATESL.

This manual from Alberta encompasses both online and blended ESL programming. The numbered guide of 81 principles includes two reference lists: one for e-learning standards and one for teaching and learning online.

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Learning for Life: An ESL Literacy Curriculum Framework Appendix B: Recommendations for Integrating Technology.

Learning for Life: An ESL Literacy Curriculum Framework Appendix B: Recommendations for Integrating Technology. (2011). Bow Valley College.

This Appendix to the Alberta ESL Literacy Curriculum Framework outlines the program and classroom considerations and some practical strategies for the successful integration of technology in the ESL classroom. The document also includes a sample three-stage progression of computer skills development used in a Computer-Enhanced ESL literacy program at Bow Valley College, charting learner progression from familiarization to application.

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TESOL Technology Standards: Description, Implementation, Integration.

Healy, D, Hanson-Smith, E, Hubbard, P, Iannou-Georgiou, S, Kessler, G, and Ware, P. (2011). TESOL Technology Standards: Description, Implementation, Integration. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL).

The TESOL Standards address the importance of incorporating technology into language teaching by emphasizing that as standards they are not optional add-ins to teacher training or language programming. The target audiences for this manual are learners, teachers, teacher educators and administrators. The Standards deal with well-documented differences in readers’ available level of technology and their access to technology by providing vignettes to illustrate programs with little access and few resources as well as others that are richly resourced and have anytime access. One of the important topics addressed in the standards is teacher education. The authors are frank about the impact of a lack of understanding of the role of technology in language learning, a lack of willingness to change and a lack of technical expertise on the use of technology in language teaching. Some of the barriers candidates in teacher training face are resistance and fear of technology and the belief that knowledge from personal computer use will suffice for language teaching. The standards include theoretical frameworks and background in each part of the manual. The information and layout is clear and helpful. This is a positive and practical resource.

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ATESL Adult ESL Curriculum Framework E-Learning.

Chambers, E., Grida, S., Ilott, W., Messaros, C., & Dawson, K. (2011). ATESL Adult ESL Curriculum Framework E-Learning. Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language.

The ATESL ESL Curriculum Framework, Section 8, focuses on E-learning. This section offers a comprehensive review of the essential elements for the successful integration of technology in ESL instruction. It includes an examination of the benefits of E-Learning and a discussion of the guiding principles for the design of effective learning activities and assessment strategies. The review also includes an overview of the importance of supporting the development of digital literacy for students to enable them to participate productively in E-Learning. Finally the review describes the role of instructor “e-practices” in relation to the successful integration of E-Learning and highlights the critical importance of professional development for instructors to enable them to take advantage of the full potential of E-Learning.

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The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs.

Bonk, C. J., & Graham, C. R. (2012). The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs. John Wiley & Sons.

This book focuses on business, higher education and workplace. There is also a section on future trends. It highlights most recent practices and trends from a global perspective. It is included here although there is little or no focus on language teaching and learning, but because it is often referred to as “The” guide to blended learning.

A Blended learning framework.

Negin Mirriahi, Dennis Alonzo, & Bob Fox. (2015). A Blended learning framework. Research in Learning Technology, 23.

The context of this report is higher education, but the issues described and the framework proposed are relevant for adult settlement language training programs. The authors claim that students’ demand for flexibility in learning and the affordances of technology have led to the rise of blended learning in the higher education sector. They cite three key challenges to its popularity. The first challenge is that academics often do not have the confidence or skill in using online technology. This low digital fluency limits integration of technology and impedes more effective learning. The second challenge is the notion that blended learning has not been well-defined and often isn’t used in a consistent way across an institution. They cite inconsistencies such as course design, teaching approaches, percent of face-to-face versus online time, the purpose of blending, and the role of technology. The third issue they address is the lack of standards-based tools available to both guide and evaluate blended learning course design. The authors present a standards-based framework to address these issues.

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A closer look at blended learning – parameters for designing a blended learning environment for language teaching and learning.

Neumeier, P. (2005).  A closer look at blended learning – parameters for designing a blended learning environment for language teaching and learning. ReCALL, 17(2), 163–178.

This journal article, written at a time when interest was building in blended learning, despite the fact that there was not a lot of research related to it, is widely cited in the literature. Neumeier provides a framework to address the question about which combination of modes provides the best blended language teaching and learning environment. Her goal is to help practitioners see and understand the complexity of blended learning environments so that they can make good use of blended learning. She provides a clear definition of blended learning and stresses the importance of finding the most effective and efficient combination of face to face and computer-assisted learning for the specific learners, context and objectives. She makes it clear that there is no course design that will work for all situations – neither in the face-to-face component, nor in the computer-assisted component. Neumeier’s six parameters identify the criteria to take into consideration for designing a course or program.

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